Citations, References and Documentations:
A writer must
not use another person’s words or original
ideas without providing documenting (or giving
credit to) the words’ or ideas’ source.
While using the exact words from an original text,
the writer needs to use quotation marks. The writer
can also paraphrase or restate the idea in his
or her own words. In such a case, the writer need
not use quotation marks – but must still
provide documentation of the source.
are many different ways to provide documentation.
One of the most popular is the CSE (Council of
Science Editors) format. In the CSE format, the
writer identifies the sources briefly in the text
and provides complete information in the list
of references at the end of the article, paper
the Citation-Sequence system (commonly used by
students for chemistry lab/library assignments),
the writer identifies the information sources
in the text. These are references. They take the
place of footnotes. Rather than listing these
references separately, the writer integrates them
seamlessly into his text. While mentioning each
source, the writer provides sequential numbers.
The writer will use the same number while quoting
the same source elsewhere.
writer then provides a list of references (or
bibliography) at the end of the study. This list,
called ‘References’ or ‘Cited
References’ enumerates all the sources that
contributed ideas and information to it. Each
reference appears in the order in which the writer
has mentioned it.
another method of citing references and sources
is the Name Year system, included n the CBE (Council
of Biology editors) style guide. In this system,
the writer links the quoted authors’ last
names and years of publication to an alphabetically
arranged list of references. The Name Year style
requires the writer to place the date of publication
right after the author’s name, both within
the text and in the reference list at the end.
for both print and electronic media should remember
that reference lists exist so that others who
read the study or paper can find the quoted sources.
The best reference lists result from extensive
research. While creating a web page or multimedia
presentation, the writer needs to include links
to electronic sources within the reference list,